Question Bank For Oral Examination for Class 1 and 2 (Marine Engineer Officers) Certificate of Competency

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Singapore Maritime Academy
Class 2 & 1 Engineer CoC
Oral Examination for Class 1 and 2
(Marine Engineer Officers)
Certificate of Competency
1

Marine Diesel Engines/Marine Steam
Plants

  • Safe and efficient
    operation and maintenance of main and auxiliary and control systems
  • Detection of
    machinery malfunction, location of faults and action to be taken to
    prevent damage
  • Determination of
    shaft power, analysis and interpretation of information obtained from
    monitoring equipment, or by use of equipment on board
  • Fail safe devices,
    safety devices fitted for the prevention of damage
  • Temporary and
    permanent repairs in the event of breakdown
  • Periodic
    examination of the working parts and examinations

Model Questions

  • Draw and explain
    VIT (B&W).
  • Draw shafting
    arrangement
  • How to make out if
    shaft is misaligned.  How to
    detect misalignment at sea.  What
    can be done if there is a misalignment?
  • When there one M/E
    unit temp high and the T/C surges what will your action be and what will
    you look for?
  • One unit temp high
    just as you leave port.  What can
    be the reason (The answer expected is that the temp will naturally be
    high as the ship is manoeuvring).
  • M/E Manoeuvering
    diagram – draw and explain.
  • C/S bolt failure –
    why common in 4 stk engines and not so in 2 stk engines?
  • ME running (out at
    sea) and suddenly the underpiston space high temp alarm rings and the
    engine slows down.  When
    investigated, no problem, all parameters normal.  When speed increased, again same thing
    happens.  Why?  The engine is B&W, 8 months old
    (The answer might be that the exhaust v/v is opening late due to a
    faulty non return valve in the actuator).
  • Power calculation
    of engines
  • Draw the draw card
    and explain if the pmax low.  What
    various cause should be.
  • Fuel p/q
    timing.  Draw the diagram and
    explain preparation precaution and step by step to check fuel p/q
    timing.
  • Pre-planning for
    performance monitoring.
  • Explain – power
    calculation
  • Crankcase
    inspection – in details.
  • Main engine turns
    on starting air, reaches air cut rpm – but does not fire
  • Determination of
    TDC when there is no flywheel marks
  • Loaded parts of
    different bearings?
  • Opening up of main
    bearing & precautions
  • Performance sheet
    of a yanmah generator – evaluate
  • Oil mist detector
    – operating principle
  • Action in case of
    OMD alarm.
  • Various buttons,
    switches of oil mist detector
  • How to check the
    generator fuel oil timing.
  • Performance of G/E
    data sheet and evaluate.
  • Explain what is
    VIT.
  • Write M/E all safety
    devices
  • How to test oil mist
    detector, overspeed trip, crank are relief door, LO low pressure trip
    with the circuit diagram
  • How to prevent engine
    from scavenge fire
  • For exhaust v/v spring
    air – what are the back up is there
  • Main bearing survey
  • Crasshead pin damage what
    you will do as C/E
  • Shaft coupling one of the bolt is broken what action you will
    take
  • Construction features of holding down bolts
  • How many ways to find out
    shaft power including 4 stroke engine
  • Factors affecting M/E
    performance
  • Construction features of
    1 con doctor and how it works
  • For scaverge air temp how
    to find out dew point
  • Give the main engine safety features (classify alarms,
    slowdowns, trips and others)
  • How can the engine get overloaded? (causes & symptoms)
  • What are different cards & diagrams?  Give purposes for each.
  • How will you determine fuel pump faulty?
  • B&W engine timing check? (lead)
  • Give reasons for turbocharger surging and actions to be taken
    as soon as you come to know at sea? 
    Also describe trouble shooting
  • Draw B&W & sulzer fuel pump & explain.  Explain VII and range for VIT in
    B&W and reasons.
  • Write down all the planning that you will do for unit o’haul
    tomorrow
  • Why is it very important to do power calculation of an engine
  • How to ascertain that the liner calibration tool is
    accurate?  What are the important
    clearances to be measured during unit o’haul.
  • How are crank shafts manufactured.  During crank case inspection, what are
    the things you will check on the crank shaft?  (Looking for Reference marks on the
    web & journal).
2

Boilers

  • Operation,
    maintenance, periodic inspections
  • Failures and
    repairs at sea
  • Boiler water
    treatement
  • Boiler tube leaking, how
    you will find out which tube is leaking, even through their having
    1000 tube
  • Cross section of boiler
    in your Ship
  • Evaporation rate
  • How to test boiler safety
    devices with circuit diagram
  •  

Model Questions

·        
Boiler stopped at low low water
level

What would be your action.
  • How will you check
    Tube Leakage
  • What inspection to
    be carried out on Boiler water side and smoke side.
  • Difference between
    a safety valve and a relief valve
  • If a boiler tube
    is leaking, what is the conventional method of finding out the leaky
    tube? (The ship is out at sea and the boiler has “10000s of tubes” and
    the leaky one is somewhere in the middle of the tube bank).
  • Types of boiler
    tube corrosion
  • Prepare 4th
    Engr for boiler water circ pump survey.
  • Draw a boiler with
    all mountings (from your last ship).
  • T/G interlock and
    L.O low pressure interlocks, how to test?
  • Draw safety valve.
    why drain is kept below the spring. how this drain water is drain from
    V/V body. material for V/V body seat, spindle, and others. why V/V body
    made by cast steel
  • No water on
    board.  You are 2 weeks away from
    the nearest port.  Will you use
    sea water in the boiler?  If so
    what precautions will you take?
  • BLR safety value
    setting.
  • BLR chemical
    treatment and what chemical to be used and what value should it be.
  • BLR casing if
    crack – what to do.
  • Boiler combustion
    control
  • Position of Boiler
    gauge glass and water level controllers and relationship between
    settings.
  • Boiler corrosion.
  • Why do water
    treatment.
  • How to check the
    boiler tube leakage and procedure on how to plug the tube.
  • Boiler survey.
  • Explain
    preparations for Boiler Survey Safety precautions and procedure &
    areas
  • Give onboard
    Boiler tests and reasons for the test. 
    Scenario:  Both P
    alkalinity and Chloride content dropping.  Give reason? ( tube leakage)
  • Draw & explain
    all types of boiler atomisers
  • Draw & explain
    boiler feed water system.  Draw
    & explain control system circuit for boiler feed water controller
  • You have found lot
    of water in service tank.  What is
    your action.  Your superintendent
    insists that you repair the steam coil leakage.  How will you go ahead with the
    repair.  (Looking for draining,
    isolating the tank and steam coil, air testing of steam coil to confirm
    leakage, enclosed space entry procedure, gas free certificate, ships
    safety officer, hotwork permit and inspection tank by classification
    society surveyor after repair). 
    (Informing Master Bridge ).
  • Cascade Tank –
    Looking for draining (Scumming) and finding the fault.  Looking for various possibilities, how
    can water enter to settling tank/service tank.
3

General

  • Principles
    involved with operation of :
a)   
Pumps,
pumping systems
b)   
Steering
gears, stabilizers
c)   
Thrust
block, shafting, stern tubes, propellers, shipside fittings
d)   
Cargo
handling equipment & deck machinery
e)   
Refrigeration
machines, refrigerants, insulation of holds

Model Questions

  • Draw steering gear
    system follow up and non follow up from bridge to steering.
  • Explain the
    emergency operation mode of steering from diagram.
  • Steer gear draw
    N.F.U. system and explain
  • What is feed back.
  • What is the
    function of Auxiliary Ram and Cylinder
  • What are the
    steering requirement for tankers.
  • Centrifugal pump –
    draw and explain (with and without diffuser ring).
  • Draw and explain
    vane type steering gear.   Explain
    sealing arrangement of the vanes.
  • Plate type coolers
    – draw gasket sealing arrangement.
  • Draw steering
    gear. single phasing – Regulation. by pass DV/V – Isolating V/V why
    & how works
  • Draw and explain
    sewage plant.
  • Draw and explain
    both types of fuel pumps.
  • Draw steering gear
    system including from bridge to rudder and explain principle.How to do
    with emergency steering.How to purge air.
  • Refrigerant System
    draw diagram and explain.  How to
    change refrigerant. air in the system. cold room temp not coming down.
  • Steering system in
    details.  Single failure
    concept.  Draw (50%) from
    transmitted upto rudder with single failure concept.
  • Sluggish action of
    steering gear
  • How to do Air Compressor
    Survey
  • What are the safety
    devices fitted and how to test them with circuit diagram
  • 2nd stage safety v/v
    lifting why
  • Factors affecting
    volumetric efficiency
  • What are the setting
    pressure of air relief v/v & LO pressure relief v/v.
  • Draw a steering gear system with single failure requirements
    – from wheel house to steering gear platform including electrical
    circuit (trasmilter, receiver
  • Explain PPt mechanism
  • Draw a by pass v/v and how it works
  • Draw central cooling system, advantage & disadvantage
  • How to protect the cooler from corrosion
  • Draw the refrigeration circuit and explain in detail the
    importance of each equipment, safety devices, cut outs, etc. Short
    cycling causes & symptoms, charging of refrigerant – precautions
    & procedures.  Disadvantage of
    gas charging?
  • Draw hydraulic circuit for deck winch & explain.
  • Draw strg gear & explain. 
    Reasons for sluggish movement of rudder
  • Steering Gear System (H Ram – 50% Torque)  Diagram & its operation, alarm
    system
  • Draw steering gear mechanisem.  (Electrohydrolic, with electrical
    transmitter and receiver) and explain. 
    Explain the function of by pass valves, shock relief valves, line
    relief valves and how they work. 
    (Looking for prevention of hydraulic locking locking by pass
    valves during stand still/dead circuit/ship in port).
4

Materials

  • Properties, heat
    treatment & suitability.

Model Questions

  • What is
    forging?  Types of crankshafts,
    their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Heat treatment
    processes.  An example for each
    component on board
  • Materials for major
    components of diesel engine with composition (%)
  • Materials for sea water
    system
  • Material of fuel oil high pressure pipe
  • What is forging, case hardening, Alloy
  • How will you carry out Cast Iron welding to cracked pump base
    onboard?  Give also precautions?
  • Give propeller materials for modern cargo ship including
    names of alloying materials and the heat treatments given.  Also reason for each alloying material
  • Welding material – why more prone to corrosion
  • Ship Materials.
    why mild steel is used. properties of HTS. Diff. between HTS & mild
    steel.
  • heat treatment
    process. properties of C.Iron. Diff. types of steel and percentage of
    carbon in it.
  • What kind of heat treatment for crankshaft?
  • What is corrosion?  How
    may types of corrosion?  How
    corrosion takes place?  What is
    oxygen pilting?  Where in the
    engine room or what are the areas in engine room where corrosion can
    take place (other than deck). (Looking for definition, flow of OH ions
    and pitting of anode).
  • What is heat treatment? 
    Where it is applied in machineries?  What is forging?  Why it is done and its advantages?  What is surface hardening?  Where it is done?  Draw different types of crank
    shafts?  (Fully, Semi, Forged,
    Welded).
5

Lubricating oils

  • Significance and
    measurement of viscosity.
  • Aspects and
    prevention of oil deterioration, additives.

Model Questions

  • L.O analysis from
    the chart.  What actions do you
    recommend as a chief engineer.
  • Cylinder lub oil
    property
  • Specification of
    crank case oil
  • Crank-case LO
    contamination.  Causes &
    action
  • Steps you will
    take to keep main Engine Lub. Oil in good condition
  • How as 2nd
    Engineer you will maintain lubricating oil onl your ship?  (Looking for care taking from
    bunkering, purifying, onboard tests and lab reports with spectrographic
    analysis).
  • You have mentioned
    previously that malfunction of purifier can also lead to oil
    contamination?  How it is
    possible.  Draw & explain
    purifier bowl.  Gravity disc,
    point of oil entry and exit.
6

Fuel Oils

  • Types,
    specifications, storage, removal of impurities
  • Fuel
    characteristics and combustion

Model Questions

·        
If
you get a very bad fuel in your last bunker, how will you manage on board.
·        
What
are the Standard ISO 1287 RMH 55 limitations for various FO contents (eg. PS
: Gravity, Viscosity, Flash Point, Carbon Residue, Vanadium aluminium, Water
Content Sulphur Ash) and their effect on engine if exceeding values.
·        
What
is the effect of Low Sulphur fuel on engine.
·        
What
all consideration you will keep in mind before ordering Bunker
·        
Effect
of Pour Point on Handling Fuel.
·        
How
to treat fuel oil.  What is the effect
about various component.
·        
How
is the purifier to treat the oil.
·        
List
down fuel oil specification and problems encountered with fuel oil.
·        
Bunker
specification. How to remove catalytic fines from fuel.
·        
HFO
service Tank Drain v/v chocked, how to repair it with necessary safety
precaution
·        
What’s
viscosity Index?
·        
You
have found a lot of water in fuel oil settling tank.  What is your action.
·        
You
have found oil in cascade tank.  What
is your action.
·        
What
are the connections (fittings) in a settling/service tank.  Name them.
7

Electrotechnology

  • AC/DC
    machines/motors: Construction, operation, maintenance and protective
    devices
  • Elementary
    electronics
  • Electrical
    measuring instruments
  • Transformers,
    distribution systems, ac/dc shipboard installations
  • Protective
    devices, fuses, circuit breakers, earth lamp.  Insulation and insulation testing.

Model Questions

  • Draw a switchboard
    distribution system and explain.
  • Regulation for the
    M.S.B. according to SOLAS
  • Explain how the
    steering motors are fed from the M.S.B.
  • Steering gear
    power in emergency.  What are the
    steering gear motor protection.
  • Emergency
    generator.  How it is connected to
    M.S.B (also the shore connection).
  • Duration of
    transitional batteries
  • Duration of
    Emergency generator power supply.
  • 2 generators are
    running in parallel.  One starts
    to shift load on the other.  What
    can be the reason.
  • When an ACB does
    not close what can the reasons be?
  • Star and delta
    starting arrangement (with aux contacts) – draw and explain.
  • Earth Fault
    lamp.  Draw diagram explanation
  • Emergency battery
    supply emerging power supply regulation requirement.
  • Blackout.  What’s cause.  What to do.  How is the sequence going on.
  • Megger testing
  • Why star delta
    connection.  Draw the star delta
    circuit diagram with protection device
  • How many ways to
    find out earth fault
  • Electrical – AVR
    figure & explanation
  • Generator –
    excitation circuit (figure)
  • What is a circuit
    breaker?  Explain how it
    works?  Draw arc chute arrangement
    and arcing contacts.
  • A/E performance
    analysing
  • instruct 3/E, how
    to check A/E for fault finding
  • AVR Draw. problem
    with AVR/can we run A/E without AVR.
8

Naval Architecture

  • Elementary ship
    construction
  • Types of vessels,
    definition and terminology in ship construction
  • Description and
    functions of major components and materials
  • Stresses in ship structure
  • Structural
    strength for cargo and machinery space openings
  • Watertight
    integrity, closing devices, ventilation, air and sounding pipes
  • Principles of
    stability, effects of free surfaces, load line
  • Tank filling and
    pumping arrangements
  • Penetration of
    deck and bulkheads
  • Maintenance and
    protection of hull, corrosion problems and methods of protection
  • Stresses of the
    ship
  • Draw aft and
    arrangement (stern) of ship
  • Difference between
    Balanced & Semi balanced rudders

Model Questions

Load
Line
  • What as a Chief
    Engineer to check on Deck.
  • What is the height
    of vent pipe any casualty (M T Brier).
  • What is the
    significance of knowing these rules (any alteration made should be
    according to the laid up rules).
  • Why machinery and
    accommodation doors are provided with sill height
  • What are the water
    tight doors and where you will find them onboard
  • What is the
    difference between water tight and weather tight doors any casuality
    (Herald of Free Enterprise).
  • Prepare for Load
    Line survey.  What do you do?
Types
of surveys?
  • Mandatory
    certificates on board.
  • Causes of sluggish
    action of rudder
  • Stability free
    surface effect and how to reduce it.
  • Rudder carrier
    sectional drawing and explain how it work.
  • How to check the
    rudder carrier bearing wear down
  • Draw Plimsoll mark
    and explain load line survey
  • Explain difference
    between weather tight, gas tight and water tight doors
  • Mid-crossection of
    Bulk-carrier. Functions of various strength members. types of floor,
    where used, distance. EIR bottom arrangement. sheers stake, stringer, stiffener
    distance, why, how. why so many manhole doors in the floor.
  • E/Room exhaust
    funnel arrangement.  (Exh. of M/E,
    A/E, boiler)
9

Fire Fighting

  • Methods of and
    aids for fire prevention, detection and extinction
  • Principles of
    operation, application and maintenance of fire extinguishers,
    respirators, safety lamps
  • Fixed fire
    detection and extinguishing arrangements for accommodation, cargo and
    machinery spaces
  • Precautions
    against fire or explosion, explosive mixtures
  • Dangers of oil
    leakage
  • Sources of ignition,
    safety devices
  • Draw CO2 flooding
    system & explain
    1. Why master v/v
      open first
    2. How you will
      instruct your 4/E before entering into CO2 room
·        
What
are the fire detectors.  Draw all of
them
·        
Which
one is the most sensitive one
·        
Your
junior reports to you that exhaust temperature of one unit of Main Engine is
high.  What will be your action.  (Looking for comparing Local & Remote
pyrometer and a possible cause of scavenge fire).

Model Questions

·        
CO2  Flooding system.  Draw a system with a pneumatic operated
cylinder not the one with wire and pulley.
·        
Draw
and explain the High Expansion System
·        
Comparison
between CO2 and Foam System advantages and disadvantage of each.
·        
Draw
a smoke type fire detector with circuit.
·        
Draw
all types of fire detectors.
·        
What
is a fire tetrahedron?
·        
What
is a fire door?
·        
Smoke
detector (ionisation, light scattering).
·        
What
inspection and maintenance you do on the fixed CO2 system.
·        
Give
one fixed fire fighting equipment arrangement.  Draw & Describe.  Give technicalities of foam for this
purpose.
·        
Disadvantages.  Paint locker fire fighting arrangement
·        
Draw
9L CO2 extinguisher
·        
CO2
flooding system/requirement/regulation (figure)
·        
(CO2
cabinet door circuit)
·        
Draw
& explain all types of fire extinguishers
·        
What
is fire tetrahedron?  What is its importance?  Draw the tetrahedron and explain sides.
10

Safe working practices

  • Overhauling
    machinery
  • Safety in workshop
  • Handling of
    repairs of electrical machines and systems
  • Protective
    equipment, lifting tackle
  • Entering tanks and
    void spaces
  • Vessels in dock,
    overhauls at shipyards
  • Taking bunkers
  • Explain a thorough
    scavenge space inspection?

Model Questions

  • Entry enclosed
    space procedures
  • Which part of the
    engine room cannot do welding
  • Engine room
    overhead crane testing procedure(load test)
  • Tanker hazardous
    area
  • FWD deck store,
    one of the bracket is broken in oil tanker, with necessary safety
    precaution how to repair it
  • Draw IG system,
    all safety devices testing
  • PV breaker, Deck
    Seal Draw
  • Aftpeak tank
    enclosed space entry to be made. 
    Describe procedure & planning (if entry from steering gear
    room where lot of activity).
  • Give planning and
    safe working practice procedure for Main Switch Board Testing
  • Tanker dangerous
    zones – draw and the kind of apparatus in each zones & why
  • CO2 room entry
    procedure
  • CO2 room
    maintenance
  • Hot work permit.
    can we do hot work in the E/R.
  • You are a 2nd
    Engineer and you have a level guage on bunker tank of your ship.  It is getting spoiled.  Will you wait till it gets completely
    spoiled or you will try to do something with it?
  •  
11

Automation and instrumentation

  • Fundamentals of
    automation, instrumentation and control systems
  • Periodically
    unattended machinery, techniques and work practices
  • Bridge control

Model Questions

  • Draw ACC for
    boiler.
  • Explain how level
    measurement is done on board?
  • Types of
    protection for heat exchangers
  • What is back
    flushing of a cooler and how is it done?
  • Explain the
    construction of an explosion proof equipment.
  • Draw a control
    circuit of viscotherm
  • Draw M/E Jacket
    cooling water controller including line diagram with flapper, nozzle
    mechanism
  • How to avoid Jkt
    water controller hunting during engine manoeuvring and reasons
  • Control – PID
    controller, Fig. and operation
  • How may types of
    level gauges.  Draw & explain
    any one of them?
  • What are the UMS
    ship requirements?  Have you
    worked on UMS ships before?
12

Emergency procedure and equipment

  • Grounding
  • Damaged propeller
  • Failure of
    steering gear
  • Abandon ship

Model Questions

 

·        
Scenario

Company
ordered master to reach port before sunset , otherwise they will have to wait
at anchorage for 3 to 4 days.  So
master alter his courage and while running at full RPM, the ship ran
aground.  Describe being Chief
Engineer, what immediate action to be taken. 
Briefly about Survey Port State Control.
  • Closing
    arrangement of E/R dampers and quick closing valves.  Explain the working.
  • Grounding.  What to do. 2/E duty when ship
    grounded. what is the position of the sounding cap. why main brg can be
    damage when grounded.
  • Rescue from
    enclosed space
  • If there is an
    emergency or critical equipment failure on your joining vessel, how will
    you handle it?
  • If new 4/E joins
    with you how will you instruct about fire fighting (scenario: puri room
    fire)
13

Pollution

  • Regulations to be
    observed to prevent pollution of marine environment.  Port regulations, International
    Regulations – MARPOL 73/78
  • Methods and aids
    to prevent pollution:
Oil filtering equipment, oil
content monitor, sewerage treatment plant, incinerator.

Model Questions

  • MARPOL annex I
    Reg.9 – Discharge of oil.
  • Discharge of Oil
  • Oil Record Book
  • ODM  Regulation
  • Regulations for
    Tankers to discharge oily mixture
  • What is marpol
    73/78? Annexe 1 – what do you know?
  • Pollution
    prevention draw diagram O.W.S and explain.
  • What is the duty
    for 2/E about bunkering .What to do if the oil spill.What content of
    sopep.
  • Oily water
    separator drawing and explain operation and what is siphon tube purpose.
    how oil probe working. oil record book, why we should we make entry when
    any bilge operation
  • Explain Marpol
    annex I and requirement pumping bilges in special area
  • Annex I – Reg, 4,
    9, 10, 16, 20, 26 explain
  • What are the items
    recorded in oil record book
  • Draw oily water
    separator & explain
  • How the 15 ppm
    alarm works
  • Give all annexes
    of Marpol 73/78.  Describe &
    list oil discharge regulations for tanker cargo & engine room oily
    water mixture.
  • Give areas &
    reason for designating an area as special.
  • Draw IG system and
    Describe. Give safety features – IG systems alarms, trips, interlocks
  • Scenario:  Service tank drain v/v choked actions?
  • Oily-water separator
    (diagram). Operation of oil level sensing probe (Electrical Circuit).
    Operational procedure.
  • Annex 1 in detail
    (oil pollution)
  • Annex 5 in detail
    (garbage)
  • Draw and explain
    oily water separator.  What is the
    starting procedure?  (Looking for
    Noting down position from bridge and recording in ORB).  What do you understand by MARPOL?  What are the Annexes?  Why you take positions when starting
    oily water separator.  Why it is
    purged and filled with seawater before starting.
  • oil record book,
    why we should we make entry when any bulge operation
14

Duties

  • Administrative
    duties: writing of reports, preparing log abstracts, maintaining store
    inventories, requisition of consumable stores and spare parts
  • Organisation and
    training of staff for
a)   
normal
duties
b)   
emergency
duties
c)   
use
of safety equipment

Model Questions

  • About ISM
  • 2nd
    Engineer Duty.
  • How to make junior
    work safely and how to train newly joined cadet.
  • You are newly promoted to rank of 2/E and visit office, what
    are the things you will find out from office and why?
  • After joining the vessel, what are the things you will do,
    priority wise? And why?
  • In case Second Engineer and other engineers are too busy, how
    will you find out the Emergency and safety equipment locations and
    emergency escape routes?  (From
    LSA, FFA plans posted near ships office)
  • How will you know about condition of LSA, FFA equipments?
    (Record Books) and other emergency equipments
  • Give the definition of ISM, dates of incorporation of 2
    phases, tonnages applicable to diff ships. Mention different clauses of
    ISM and SMS and explain
  • Explain “Training of Staff” (in accordance with
    regulations)
  • Give certificates & validity (carried onboard)
  • Engine room safety equipment survey preparations.
  • How will you train your Junior Staff?
15

Casualties

  • Knowledge of
    casualties (at sea or in port), lessons learnt, methods of prevention
  • Understanding and
    compliance with recommendations laid out in Shipping circulars, Merchant
    Shipping Notices
Model
Questions
  • Discuss a few
    casualties which you have read about, the lessons learnt and methods of
    prevention.
  • Differences
    between M notices and Shipping circulars
  • What are the
    shipping circulars ?.  Give
    Example

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